Organising a Schools Response (Special Needs in Mainstream Schools)
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Special education is regulated centrally. According to the Act on Public Education, students with special educational needs may be exempted from standardized tests or given modified tests. As of , students with disabilities received a significant bonus eight points on the university entrance examination, which has been criticized as unfair. As a general rule, students with special educational needs are integrated into their regular, mainstream schools with appropriate support, under the "Going to School Together" policy Weer Samen Naar School.
The national policy is moving towards "suitable education" passend onderwijs , based on the individual's strengths and weaknesses. A strong emphasis is placed on the specific needs and positive capabilities of the individual, rather than on limitations. The general objective for Statped is to give guidance and support to those in charge of the education in municipalities and county administrations to ensure that children, young people and adults with major and special educational needs are secured well-advised educational and developmental provisions.
The institutions affiliated with Statped offer a broad spectrum of services. Statped consists of 13 resource centres owned by the State, and 4 units for special education, where Statped buys services. These centres offer special educational guidance and support for local authorities and county administrations. Students with disabilities have a "guaranteed right" to appropriate accommodations on assessments. On national tests, the National Examination Center normally grants most requests for accommodations that are supported by the local school's examination committee.
Legislation opposes the use of modifications that would be unfair to non-disabled students. Schools are required to provide services and resources to students with special educational needs so that they make progress and participate in school. Spanish non-governmental organizations like ONCE have traditionally provided significant services to students with disabilities. Local schools have significant autonomy, based on national guidelines. Schools are expected to help students meet the goals that are set for them.
There has in been media criticism on the fact that students with light problems such as dyslexia have been placed in special schools, seriously hampering their chances on the labour market.
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Education is controlled by the 26 cantons, and so special education programs vary from place to place. In England and Wales the acronym SEN for Special Educational Needs denotes the condition of having special educational needs, the services which provide the support and the programmes and staff which implement the education. SENCO refers to a special educational needs coordinator, who usually works with schools and the children within schools who have special educational needs. The Special Educational Needs Parent Partnership Services help parents with the planning and delivery of their child's educational provision.
The Department for Education oversees special education in England. Most students have an individual educational plan, but students may have a group plan in addition to, or instead of, an individual plan. Group plans are used when a group of students all have similar goals. In Scotland the Additional Support Needs Act places an obligation on education authorities to meet the needs of all students in consultation with other agencies and parents. At a young age students who have special needs in Turkey are provided special education from The Ministry of Education , who are responsible in giving them the education that they need.
All special-needs students receive an Individualized Education Program BEP that outlines how the school will meet the student's individual needs.
In This Article:
Government-run schools provide special education in varying degrees from the least restrictive settings, such as full inclusion, to the most restrictive settings, such as segregation in a special school. The education offered by the school must be appropriate to the student's individual needs. Schools are not required to maximize the student's potential or to provide the best possible services. Unlike most of the developed world, American schools are also required to provide many medical services, such as speech therapy , if the student needs these services.
According to the Department of Education, approximately 10 percent of all school-aged children currently receive some type of special education services. As with most countries in the world, students who are poor, ethnic minorities , or do not speak the dominant language fluently are disproportionately identified as needing special education services. Poor, refugies are more likely to have limited resources and to employ inexperienced teachers that do not cope well with student behavior problems, "thereby increasing the number of students they referred to special education. Before , little action was taken to educate children with disabilities in Columbia.
Children would be left home without much interaction with the outside world. In , special education was researched across the country and education programs were created. After , people with disabilities were given access to public school classes. While there has been improvement over recent years, there is still slow development for special education programs and special education policy.
The history of special education in Colombia can be categorized into three time periods: the period of neglect, the period of diagnosis and planning, and the emergence of special education. The period of planning ran from the years to the year The Ministry of Colombia in implemented a national plan for the development of special education called "Plan Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Education Especial".
The purposes of the plan was to create a national diagnosis of special education and to initiate programs for individuals with disabilities. In , the Ministry of education put the first law into action to introduce special classes in public schools that include students with disabilities, called Law The most recent development of special education in Colombia was Article 11 of Law , which was passed in The law states that "the Ministry of Education will define the policy and regulate the scheme of education for persons with special educational needs, promoting educational access and quality under a system based on inclusion in the educational services".
Education in Canada is the responsibility of the individual provinces and territories. However, inclusion is the dominant model. For major exams, Canadian schools commonly use accommodations, such as specially printed examinations for students with visual impairments, when assessing the achievements of students with special needs. All special-needs students receive an Individualized Education Program IEP that outlines how the school will meet the student's individual needs.
According to the Department of Education, approximately 6 million children roughly 10 percent of all school-aged children currently receive some type of special education services. During the s, in some part due to the civil rights movement , some researchers began to study the disparity of education amongst people with disabilities. Board of Education decision, which declared unconstitutional the " separate but equal " arrangements in public schools for students of different races, paved the way for PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and Mills vs.
Board of Education of District of Columbia , which challenged the segregation of students with special needs. Courts ruled that unnecessary and inappropriate segregation of students with disabilities was unconstitutional. This law required schools to provide services to students previously denied access to an appropriate education. In US government-run schools, the dominant model is inclusion. In the United States, three out of five students with academic learning challenges spend the overwhelming majority of their time in the regular classroom.
These conditions involve challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication. They also involve unique strengths and differences. Autism is known as a disability that impairs the social interactions and communication skills of a person. People who are autistic tend to think and act differently than others. For students with autism, there are apps called "visual scene displays" that are most helpful for children who are having difficulty with verbal skills, according to Jules Csillag, a speech-language pathologist who focuses on special ed tech.
Apps such as SceneSpeak and Speech with Milo help autistic children develop storytelling skills with text-to-speech voice and interactive storybooks.
Using apps like these in a classroom can improve autistic student's verbal skills. There are several controversies surrounding the diagnoses and causes of autism. It's now believed that there's no single cause of autism. Research seems to suggest that autism is normally the result of both genetic and environmental influences. If a student has down syndrome , assistive technology can help with their learning experience. Their brains have a late reaction when their neurological system sends a message for any task.
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Because of this late reaction, they tend to take longer to complete a task than an average students. Down syndrome children tend to have shorter fingers and a lowered thumb making their ability to write more difficult. Also, some of the usual wrist bones are not formed, making it difficult to hold objects.
Slanted desks are one type of assisted technology that can aid in the successful ability to write. A three-ring binder can be used to create a slanted desk by turning the binder sideways. Also, students with Down syndrome often try to hold their pencils by anchoring them against the thumb rather than using the tip of their thumb. Shortened pencils or triangular-shaped pencils encourage students to hold them correctly. Using any of these assistive technologies can help down syndrome students during their educational process.
5 Effective Strategies for the Inclusive Classroom
Today many people with disabilities are breaking barriers through the use of technology. For some individuals with disabilities, assistive technology is a necessary tool that enables them to engage in or perform many tasks. Integrating technology will allow students to increase their self-confidence, self-motivation, independence and they will also be able to engage in different activities within the school.
Theory and models. Physical Occupational Speech. Societal implications.
School support for children with special needs
Disability rights movement Inclusion Normalization People-first language Pejorative terms. Personal assistance. Socioeconomic assistance. Groups Organizations. Disabled sports. Disability in the arts Disability art Disability in the media. Disability Lists. Main article: Special education in China. Main article: Education in Japan. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: List of special education institutions in Lahore. Main article: Special Education Bulgaria. Main article: Special education in the United Kingdom. Further information: Special education in England and Special education in Scotland. Main article: Special education in Turkey. Main article: Special education in the United States. Inclusionary education for students with special needs: Keeping the promise. Washington, DC: Author.
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Urban Education, 44 4 , — Teacher efficacy, tolerance, gender, and years of experience and special education referrals. International Journal of Special Education, 24 1 , — The dreamkeepers: successful teachers of African American children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. The State of Learning Disabilities. Huffington Post. It will also require the vigorous participation of our social partners and our communities so that social exclusion and negative stereotyping can be eliminated. Education White Paper 1 on Education and Training acknowledged the importance of providing an effective response to the unsatisfactory educational experiences of learners with special educational needs, including those within the mainstream whose educational needs were inadequately accommodated.
A joint report on the findings of these two bodies was presented to the Minister in November , and the final report was published in February August 30, based to a large extent on the recommendations made to the Minister in this report. There should be consistency between the inclusive approach that is embraced, viz.
Census data: Distribution of disabled persons per category per province. Analysis of the data reveals the extent of the disparities in provision for learners with disabilities, for example:. These policies also centralised provision within the Western Cape and Gauteng so that, today, the vast majority of learners attend residential special schools in a province other than their own since no facilities are available in their province of residence.
While this distribution of learner expenditure demonstrates inefficiency in the use of resources, it also demonstrates the absence of a uniform resourcing strategy and national provisioning norms for learners with disabilities. This means that learners who require low-intensive support will receive this in ordinary schools and those requiring moderate support will receive this in full-service schools.
Learners who require high-intensive educational support will continue to receive such support in special schools. Our estimate of the upper limit of out-of-school disabled learners is , An inclusive education and training system is organised so that it can provide various levels and kinds of support to learners and educators. Accordingly, we will evaluate carefully what resources we already have within the system and how these existing resources and capacities can be strengthened and transformed so that they can contribute to the building of an inclusive system.
We will also decide on where the immediate priorities lie and put in place mechanisms to address these first. In this regard, different learning needs arise from a range of factors, including physical, mental, sensory, neurological and developmental impairments, psycho-social disturbances, differences in intellectual ability, particular life experiences or socio-economic deprivation. Their increased vulnerability has arisen largely because of the historical nature and extent of the educational support provided.
These may also arise during the learning process and be temporary, and can be addressed through a variety of mechanisms and processes. Interventions or strategies at different levels, such as the classroom, the school, the district, the provincial and national departments and systems, will be essential to prevent them from causing learning to be ineffective. Classroom educators will be our primary resource for achieving our goal of an inclusive education and training system. This means that educators will need to improve their skills and knowledge, and develop new ones.
Staff development at the school and district level will be critical to putting in place successful integrated educational practices. The approach is also consistent with a systemic and developmental approach to understanding problems and planning action. It is consistent with new international approaches that focus on providing quality education for all learners.
In this case, barriers to learning arise from different aspects of the curriculum, such as:. What can be done to overcome these barriers and who will assist institutions in doing it? The most important way of addressing barriers arising from the curriculum is to make sure that the process of learning and teaching is flexible enough to accommodate different learning needs and styles.
The curriculum must therefore be made more flexible across all bands of education so that it is accessible to all learners, irrespective of their learning needs. One of the tasks of the district support team will be to assist educators in institutions in creating greater flexibility in their teaching methods and in the assessment of learning. They will also provide illustrative learning programmes, learning support materials and assessment instruments. Rather, the successful implementation of this policy will rely on a substantive understanding of the real experiences and capabilities of our provincial systems and education and training institutions, the setting of achievable policy objectives and priorities over time and regular reporting on these.
Successful policy implementation will also rely on the identification of key levers for policy change and innovation within our provincial systems and our education and training institutions. As we described earlier, special schools currently provide, in a racially segregated manner, education services of varying quality. A special school has specialised skills available among its staff and has developed learning materials to specifically assist learners with visual impairments.
There may also be facilities for Braille available at the school. The professional staff at this school, as part of their role in the district support team, could run a training workshop in their district for other educators on how to provide additional support in the classroom to visually-impaired learners. The special school could produce learning materials in Braille and make them available through a lending system to other schools in the district.
Similarly, within adult basic, further and higher education, the designation and establishment of full-service educational institutions. The eventual number of full-service institutions beyond the target of will be governed by our needs and available resources. Full-service schools and colleges are schools and colleges that will be equipped and supported to provide for the full range of learning needs among all our learners. In the next chapter we elaborate on these six strategies and levers for change that constitute the core of our policy framework for establishing an inclusive education and training system.
Given the serious human resource constraints in the country and the demands for justice, there is an onus on the Government to ensure that all human resources are developed to their fullest potential. The Department also provides free health care for children younger than six years, while the Technical Guidelines on Immunisation in South Africa provide for children younger than five years to be prioritised for nutritional intervention.
The Department also provides a child support grant for needy children younger than seven years. Education and training policies, legislation, advisory bodies and governance and organisational arrangements. Accordingly, the Ministry will require all advisory bodies to provide it with advice on how to implement the policy proposals contained in this White Paper. The Ministry will also review the memberships of all advisory bodies to ensure that appropriate expertise and representation enable these bodies to advise the Minister and Members of the Provincial Executive Councils responsible for Education on goals, priorities and targets for the successful establishment of the inclusive education and training system.
Policies, legislation and frameworks for the school and college systems must provide the basis for overcoming the causes and effects of barriers to learning. Specifically admission policies will be revised so that learners who can be accommodated outside of special schools and specialised settings can be accommodated within designated full-service or other schools and settings. Age grade norms will be revised to accommodate those learners requiring a departure from these norms as a result of their particular learning needs. Simultaneously, the Ministry will collaborate with the Ministries of Health and Social Development to design and implement early identification, assessment and education programmes for learners with disabilities in the age group years.
Boarding facilities and transport policies and practices will be reviewed on the understanding that the neighbourhood or full-service school should be promoted as the first choice. Institutional planning is now a critical part of national planning for higher education, and higher education institutions will be required to plan the provision of programmes for learners with disabilities and impairments through regional collaboration.
This is now a requirement of the National Plan for Higher Education. The manner in which the physical environment, such as buildings and grounds, is developed and organised contributes to the level of independence and equality that learners with disability enjoy. The physical environment of most ordinary schools and learning settings is not barrier-free and even where this is the case, accessibility has not been planned.
Accordingly, space and cost norms for buildings, including grounds, will focus on the design and construction of new buildings, as well as the renovation of existing buildings. These actions will be undertaken in collaboration with the Ministry of Public Works and provincial departments of public works. Professional development programmes will focus on the development of effective leadership in policy, administration and programme implementation, the establishment of management information systems, and the development of competencies necessary for addressing severe learning difficulties within all branches and sections of the national and provincial departments of education.
The primary function of these district support teams will be to evaluate programmes, diagnose their effectiveness and suggest modifications. Through supporting teaching, learning and management, they will build the capacity of schools, early childhood and adult basic education and training centres, colleges and higher education institutions to recognise and address severe learning difficulties and to accommodate a range of learning needs.
The primary function of these teams will be to put in place properly co-ordinated learner and educator support services. These services will support the learning and teaching process by identifying and addressing learner, educator and institutional needs. Where appropriate, these teams should be strengthened by expertise from the local community, district support teams and higher education institutions.
District support teams will provide the full range of education support services, such as professional development in curriculum and assessment, to these institutional-level support teams. Staff appointed to these posts can, as members of the district support team, develop and co-ordinate school-based support for all educators. Accordingly, and in collaboration with our provincial departments of education, the Ministry will, through the district support teams, provide access for educators to appropriate pre-service and in-service education and training and professional support services.
The Ministry will also ensure that the norms and standards for the education and training of educators, trainers and other development practitioners include competencies in addressing barriers to learning and provide for the development of specialised competencies such as life skills, counselling and learning support. This new role will be performed by special schools and settings in addition to the services that they provide to their existing learner base. In order to ensure that special schools and settings are well prepared for their new role, we will conduct an audit of their current capacities and the quality of their provision, raise the quality of their provision, upgrade them to resource centres and train their staff to assume these new roles as part of the district support team.
These full-service schools will be provided with the necessary physical and material resources and the staff and professional development that are essential to accommodate the full range of learning needs. In this manner, we will expand provision and access to disabled learners within neighbourhood schools alongside their non-disabled peers.
The Ministry, therefore, expects institutions to indicate in their institutional plans the strategies and steps, with the relevant time frames, they intend taking to increase enrolment of these learners. However, all higher education institutions will be required to ensure that there is appropriate physical access for physically disabled learners. Such facilities will therefore have to be organised on a regional basis.
These barriers to learning arise from within the various interlocking parts of the curriculum, such as the content of learning programmes, the language and medium of learning and teaching, the management and organisation of classrooms, teaching style and pace, time frames for completion of curricula, the materials and equipment that are available, and assessment methods and techniques. Barriers to learning and exclusion of this kind also arise from the physical and psycho-social environment within which learning occurs. A key responsibility of the district support teams will be to provide curriculum, assessment and instructional support to public adult learning centres, schools and further education institutions in the form of illustrative learning programmes, learning support materials and assessment instruments.
The Ministry believes that these programmes should provide a comprehensive education, and should provide life skills and programme-to-work link-ages. As described earlier, these programmes will also be required to provide their services to neighbourhood schools. It is during the pre-schooling years that hearing and vision-testing programmes should reveal early organic impairments that are barriers to learning.
Community-based clinics are in the best position to conduct an initial assessment and plan a suitable course of action in conjunction with parents and personnel from various social services such as education. In order to ensure the continuity of such services throughout learning, the Ministry recognises that it is essential that links be established between community-based clinics and other service providers and the education and training system. To achieve this important objective, the Ministry shall work closely with the Ministries of Social Development and Health, and the provincial departments of education.
With respect to the school system, early identification of barriers to learning will focus on learners in the Foundation Phase Grades R-3 who may require support, for example through the tailoring of the curriculum, assessment and instruction. In this respect, our primary focus shall be on the designated full-service institutions. Uncovering negative stereotypes, advocating unconditional acceptance and winning support for the policies put forward in this White Paper will be essential to the establishment of the inclusive education and training system. The Ministry will also continue its discussions with national actors and role-players to win their support for the policy of inclusion and to review rights, responsibilities and obligations attached to these.
One of the central thrusts of the advocacy campaign will be to target parents, since they are regarded as an important form of support. Similarly, the Ministry will target the recruitment of learners to the designated public adult learning centres, and further and higher education institutions as these are established. Given the centralisation during apartheid, learners from all over the country were required to attend schools in these provinces depending on the nature of their needs.
However, it is evident that educational provision in the other provinces has also not been cost-effective. For instance, in the North West province 42 schools cater for just over 4, learners, a learner:school ratio of , while in Gauteng the learner:school ratio is approximately These discrepancies are due largely to the racial organisation of special schools, with schools for whites most highly resourced. Additionally, these variances probably also reflect other inefficiencies in provision. As stated earlier, the segregation of learners on the basis of race was extended to incorporate segregation on the basis of disability.
The challenge therefore is to transform the current system to make it more efficient, more equitable and more just. Foremost amongst these factors are human resource, fiscal and institutional capacities. Expanding access and provision to disabled children and youth of school-going age that are currently out of school implies a steep increase in demands placed on these professionals.
This is a fundamental proposition of the White Paper. While over-expenditure during this period in education, in particular on personnel costs and a net increase in pupil enrolment, dramatically reduced expenditure on critical programmes such as special education, early childhood development and adult basic education and training, better financial planning and management have now produced credible budgets and expenditure patterns.
The confident but progressive establishment of an inclusive education and training system as outlined in this White Paper must therefore also be understood against this background. The current system of provision is both cost-ineffective and excludes individuals with barriers to learning from the mainstream of educational provision.
The White Paper proposes a mix of institutional structures of district support systems incorporating special schools as resource centres and full-service schools to meet the challenges of provision within an inclusive system. The costs of implementing such a system of institutional structures, especially in the transitional phase, will need to be investigated. As stated earlier, approximately , learners are unaccounted for in the system. It is likely that some of them are in mainstream schooling where their needs are not being catered for.
However, the majority of them are probably not in the schooling system at all. The mobilisation of these out-of-school children and youth represents one of the big challenges in the development of the inclusive education and training system. At the current average staffing ratios in special schools of around ranging from to , expanding the system on the conventional model will be impossible.
Given these small absolute numbers of learners in a school, it makes sense for specialist educators not to be based at each school, but as the White Paper outlines, at the district level to be drawn upon by each school as required. In addition, in respect of the recruitment of out-of-school learners, sustained information, advocacy and mobilisation will need to be undertaken. The vision and goals articulated in this White Paper reflect a year developmental perspective. The generation and distribution of personnel resources will be determined through the post-provisioning process, while the School Funding Norms will govern the generation and distribution of non-personnel resources.
In particular, such funding will be used for two purposes. Firstly, it will be used in both special and full-service schools to provide the necessary facilities and other material resources needed to increase access for those currently excluded. Secondly, it will be used to provide some of the non-educational resources that will be required to ensure access to the curriculum, such as medication, devices such as wheelchairs, crutches, hearing aids, guide dogs, interpreters and voice-activated computers, and social workers.
The revised resourcing model will create a dedicated pool of posts for the educational support system. Such a revision will focus on the development of an appropriate post-distribution mechanism, guidelines for post utilisation and structural and organisational arrangements to ensure flexibility in the deployment of posts. Particular attention will be given to optimising the expertise of specialist support personnel, such as therapists, psychologists, remedial educators and health professionals. These posts will be top-sliced from the total pool of posts in a province before the post-distribution model is applied to schools.
What is being proposed here is a much more cost-effective use of specialist educators than is currently the practice. Two such activities are described in the White Paper:. As stated earlier, the Ministry will link the learning of individuals with disabilities stemming from impaired intellectual development and who do not require intensive support to the general restructuring of the further education and training sector currently being undertaken by the Department. The funding arrangements for these full-service colleges will, therefore, constitute a sub-set of the broader funding strategy for the further education and training sector.
The Ministry,therefore, expects institutions to indicate in their institutional plans the strategies and steps, with related time frames, they intend taking to increase enrolment of these learners. The Ministry will also make recommendations to higher education institutions regarding minimum levels of provision for learners with special needs.
It will not be possible to provide relatively expensive equipment and other resources, particularly for blind and deaf students, at all higher education institutions. This implementation plan can be broken down as follows:. The important features of this strategy are its emphasis on cost-effectiveness and exploiting the economies of scale that result from expanding access and provision within an inclusive education and training system.