The Dynamics of Hired Farm Labour: Constraints and Community Responses

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Ideal candidates are current students or recent alumni who wish to learn about the legislative process, and are interested in government and public interest law. Candidates should have excellent writing and research skills, and the ability to work independently, as well as part of a team. Strong written and oral communication skills and a good sense of humor are essential. Please e-mail your resume, a cover letter that includes your availability, your unofficial transcript, a short writing sample, and a list of at least three references to vacancies email.

This portfolio includes: government operations and reform, regulatory reform, federal employment matters, government ethics, spending oversight, environmental policy, and more. This is a senior level position. Management experience is required. Candidates must excel at managing a team, be exceptionally strong writers, detail-oriented, be able to work under tight deadlines, and be able to handle multiple projects at once. Salary will be based on education and experience. The Committee is an equal opportunity employer and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, gender identity, or sexual orientation.

The Committee strongly encourages candidates of diverse backgrounds to apply. Republican Senator seeks a Legislative Assistant with strong writing, research, and oral communications skills to advise the Senator on issues related to appropriations, financial services, budget, taxes, and business. Ideal candidates will be self-motivated, possess a strong attention to detail, work well under pressure in a fast-paced environment, and have the ability to effectively function both independently and as a member of a team.

Capitol Hill experience or background in related fields is preferred. Please send a resume and a cover letter to senategopla gmail. Midwest Republican Senator is seeking a Legislative Correspondent to respond to constituent mail and assist the Legislative Assistants responsible for the commerce, transportation, and judiciary legislative portfolio. Qualified candidates will possess excellent writing and research skills and the ability to meet deadlines, while paying close attention to detail, in a fast-paced environment. Midwest ties, Capitol Hill experience, and knowledge in these issue areas are strongly preferred.

Senator Sanders is seeking a full-time legislative intern for the fall and spring semesters in his Washington, D. Interns serve a valuable role in the office assisting in legislative and administrative tasks while gaining insight into the inner workings of the Senate. Responsibilities include assisting staff with constituent phone calls and requests, processing messages, attending briefings and committee hearings, conducting research and drafting memos, leading U.

Capitol tours and providing responses to constituent letters and inquiries. Those with Vermont ties or a demonstrated interest in progressive politics are a plus. The office is seeking a diverse pool of applicants. As such, all prospective applicants are encouraged to apply. Applications will be considered on a rolling basis, and can be found here.

This is responsible support work using equipment and software applications to develop the overall layout and production design of publications, newsletters, brochures, charts, signage, displays, booklets, handouts, and other specialty items for use by Senators, Senate committees and offices. The U. The positions offer undergraduate, graduate, and law students the opportunity to gain substantive experience in a Senate office while participating directly in the legislative process.

Intern and law clerk responsibilities include, but are not limited to: assisting Committee staff in performing office duties, conducting research, analyzing legislation, drafting memorandums, and assisting in hearing preparation. Interns and law clerks play a key role in the office and will work closely with senior policy advisors and counsels. Please specify within your application which office or offices you would prefer to work in. Qualifications : Applicants should have i an interest in public policy and ii a desire to learn.

They also must have good attention to detail, work well under pressure, be self-motivated, and possess excellent written and oral communication skills. Education Policy Intern : interest in education-related policy, including: early childhood, k, postsecondary, workforce, and civil rights issues.

Interest or experience teaching or working with students encouraged. Pensions Intern or Law Clerk : clerkship open to current law students and LLM candidates who have an interest in retirement policy. Please note relevant classes taken, if any, in your cover letter. Oversight Law Clerk : clerkship open to current law students or recent law school graduates who are interested in health, education, and labor law and policies that strive to protect consumers, workers, and the public. Previous experience in government is not required but candidates should have a general understanding of the legislative process.

Communications Intern : interest in press and communications, including: social media, press releases, speechwriting, op-ed writing, and media outreach ii an interest in public policy and iii a desire to learn. Strong candidates will demonstrate good attention to detail, work well under pressure, be self-motivated, and possess excellent written and oral communication skills.

Writing and research experience preferred. Policy issues will vary. Applicants for the communications position should prioritize press-oriented writing samples over academic-oriented ones. Applications : Interested applicants should apply to this position by submitting a cover letter, resume, writing sample, and application form found on the OAM website.

New users will have to sign up on the OAM portal to apply. Please indicate your availabilit y. The deadline for the spring internship program is Friday, November 1st, This office is an equal opportunity employer. We do not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex including gender identity or sexual orientation , national origin, age, disability, gender, uniformed service, genetic information, or any other factor.

Senator Tom Udall seeks energetic and detail-oriented Press Assistant to join active communications team. Responsibilities include building and maintaining press lists; drafting press releases, memos, media advisories, talking points and other materials; assisting press secretary with pitching news stories, staffing interviews, and cultivating relationships with New Mexico media; and compiling daily press clips and additional media monitoring.

Candidate must be an exceptionally strong writer, personable, and able to work under tight deadlines. New Mexico or Southwestern ties and Spanish language skills strongly desired. This office is an equal opportunity employer and does not discriminate on the basis of race, sex, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability. Candidates from diverse backgrounds are encouraged to apply.

N o phone calls or drop-ins please. Due to the high volume of applicants, not all inquiries can be acknowledged. Duties include developing and implementing proactive communications plans, pitching and responding to press inquiries, and writing speeches, talking points, releases, and other content as needed. Ideal applicant is detail oriented, highly motivated, a strong and fast writer, a very hard worker, and a team player who has extensive experience communicating on complex policy issues. Previous communications experience or other relevant experience required.

Responsibilities include, but are not limited to, providing administrative support to the Chicago office, assisting with the intake process for Federal casework, assisting with general office operations and drafting correspondence related to Federal Grants. The Staff Assistant will maintain and track office inventory, serve as the day-to-day point of contact with the General Services Administration building staff and coordinate with the Systems Administrator to ensure IT support is provided to the Chicago office. Candidates must also have excellent organizational, time management and problem solving skills.

Responsibilities include driving the Senator throughout Delaware and occasionally in the surrounding Mid-Atlantic region, including Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and D. Qualified candidates must have an impeccable driving record and a vehicle. Additional duties as assigned. The Majority Staff of a Senate Committee seeks a communications team member to focus on graphics design and digital media. The ideal candidate will be a highly-motivated individual who takes initiative, works ahead, and can multitask a variety of assignments in a fast-paced, team-oriented office.

Proficiency with graphics design software and expertise in digital media are required. The United States Senate Page Program seeks a Proctor for page residence which houses high school students from across the nation. Duties include supervising students, enforcing rules, and planning activities. Bachelor's degree required.

Experience working with adolescents or as a resident assistant preferred. Compensation includes competitive salary and federal benefits. This is a full-time, live-in position. Applicants must have flexible schedules which permit evening, overnight, and weekend assignments. Work schedule is particularly conducive for individuals currently enrolled, or considering pursuit of a degree granting program. This is a full-time, commuter position. Responsibilities include compiling press clips, answering reporter inquiries, assisting with press conferences and press releases, talking points, and memos, conducting research, and assisting the press staff with the daily operations of a very active press office.

Applicants must work well under pressure, have excellent written and oral communication skills and a desire to learn. Previous experience is not required, but candidates with Northeast ties, who have an interest in communications and a general understanding of government are encouraged to apply. Paid internships are available to interns who have been accepted into the internship program and are able to certify financial need and meet eligibility criteria.

If interested, please apply her e. Conservative Republican Senator seeks a legislative correspondent to respond to and meet with constituents in the DC office. Candidates should have a demonstrated record of writing concisely on diverse topics in public policy, law, or politics. Responsibilities include meeting with a high volume of constituents with plural needs and requests, responding to constituent contacts in writing and in person, managing incoming and outgoing constituent mail systems, adapting to assigned projects in multiple issue areas and executing member and staff research requests under tight time constraints.

Interested candidates should submit a letter of interest that explains their political philosophy and policy perspectives and describes applicable customer service experience and communications skills. Management experience is strongly preferred. Candidates must be team players; excellent managers; strong, concise writers; and able to multi-task under tight deadlines. Candidates must be team players; strong, concise writers; and able to multi-task under tight deadlines. Responsibilities include driving the Senator and aiding in a variety of administrative duties.

Qualified candidates must have impeccable driving record and a vehicle. Please email resume and cover letter to staffassistant19 gmail. The Office is an equal employment opportunity employer in accordance with the requirements of Senate Rules, regulations and applicable federal laws. Primary responsibilities include handling a large docket of constituent casework; interacting with constituents and government agencies; representing Senator Van Hollen at community events; and conducting outreach to the Asian American community.

Issues that will be handled will include immigration casework. Familiarity with the Asian American community is essential. This position provides an opportunity to be part of a hard-working cohesive team and to make a difference in the lives of others. The ideal candidate is self-motivated, great at multi-tasking, has a strong desire to help people, and has excellent interpersonal and writing skills. Evening and weekend hours are often required. This is a full-time position with federal benefits.

Interested applicants are invited to send a resume and cover letter, including salary requirements , to applications vanhollen. Applications that do not include salary requirements will not be considered. No phone calls, please. Responsibilities include media monitoring and research, writing media advisories and press releases, drafting social media and general communications office support. Ideal candidate possesses strong writing skills, works well under deadline and thrives juggling multiple assignments. Michigan ties are preferred though not required. This position is unpaid. This individual will act as the Senator's liaison to government, community and constituent groups and civic leaders; monitor local developments, opinions and concerns in the region; represent the Senator at community events; as well as other duties assigned.

The ideal candidate will have excellent oral and written communications skills, a demonstrated capability to generate new ideas, and the ability to manage multiple projects at a time. Experience with rural communities and outreach a huge plus. This office is an equal opportunity employer; we do not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, gender identity or expression, or sexual orientation.

Applicants with disabilities who require reasonable accommodation to participate effectively in the application or hiring processes are encouraged to request an accommodation at any time during those processes. Primary responsibilities include answering phones, greeting office visitors, monitoring office deliveries and pickups, distributing mail, scheduling tours, managing interns, and various other administrative duties.

Qualified applicants must be outgoing and dependable with excellent organizational and communication skills. The office is an equal opportunity employer and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity. The office encourages candidates of diverse backgrounds to apply. Michigan ties are strongly preferred. The fellow must be motivated, creative, self-disciplined and organized.

In addition to a strong grasp of policy, the fellow should have a keen political sense and the ability to balance the competing interests of a demographically and ideologically diverse constituency. Graduate degree preferred but is not required. Please note this is an unpaid position. Midwestern Senator seeks experienced staffer to cover legislative portfolio for the Senator including banking, tax, trade, retirement benefits and small business. Responsibilities include staffing the Senator for the Joint Economic Committee. Additional duties include entrepreneurially developing and executing legislative initiatives; constant monitoring of legislative developments; professionally representing the Senator; working with stakeholders; preparing materials for meetings, briefings, and hearings; working with state offices; and coordinating closely with senior staff and the Senator.

This position requires excellent communication, research and writing skills, as well as the ability to work well under pressure and in a fast-paced environment. Preferred candidates will have an advanced degree and at least five years of legislative or policy experience. The office is an equal opportunity employer and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, gender identity, or sexual orientation.

Qualified candidates must be able to write clearly and concisely, have excellent organizational skills, and be able to work in collaborative team environment. The Office of Senate Legal Counsel — a non-partisan, independent, statutorily created office that represents the Senate, Members, Officers and staff of the Senate in litigation, and provides advice on a variety of constitutional and other legal issues — seeks a legal assistant. Paralegal experience preferred. Duties include: conducting legal, legislative, and historical research; cite checking and filing electronically briefs and memoranda; maintaining, updating, and organizing paper and electronic reference files; tracking and compiling Senate rules, statutes, and court decisions; assisting with administrative tasks, including answering telephone calls.

Ideal candidate will have willingness and aptitude to assist with computer systems administrator functions. Competitive salary available. Senior Republican Senator seeks an experienced communications professional to serve as press secretary in the Washington, D. The press secretary is an integral member of the press team and will report directly to the communications director. The primary responsibilities will include, but are not limited to, drafting press releases, op-eds, and speeches, booking and prepping the member for television and radio interviews, and responding to national and local press inquiries.

This position requires impeccable attention to detail, excellent interpersonal skills and the ability to handle sensitive and confidential information. The ideal candidate will have previous Capitol Hill or campaign experience, and a Midwest background or strong connection is preferred. Required application materials include: 1 a cover letter detailing your interest in the press secretary position, along with a brief description of the qualities that make you a good candidate and 2 a resume outlining your relevant experience.

Northeastern Democratic Senator seeks staffer to advise on matters related to arms control and nonproliferation, foreign policy, and national security. Responsibilities include drafting legislation, memos, talking points, letters, and vote recommendations as well as working with federal agencies, constituents, and stakeholders. Qualified candidates should also be entrepreneurial, possess excellent negotiation and writing skills, and work well in a fast-paced, team-oriented environment.

A graduate degree is preferred, however it is not required. Members of all diverse communities are encouraged to apply. The regional coordinator also assists with representing the senator at meetings and public events, as assigned by the regional director. The position requires some travel to communities throughout the thirteen counties that comprise the Mid-Michigan Region. This includes occasional meetings and events during evenings and weekends.

The ideal candidate is personable, dependable, flexible, able to multitask and prioritize, and works well under pressure. The candidate should have familiarity with the region and an interest in public policy.

The Dynamics of Hired Farm Labour: Constraints and Community Responses

A background or experience with customer service is preferred, and strong writing and grammar skills are a must. A Western Democrat is seeking a Legislative Correspondent LC to handle banking, immigration, judiciary, military affairs, and veterans mail portfolio. Responsibilities include responding to constituent correspondence, providing assistance to senior legislative staff members, and representing the office in constituent meetings.

Ideal candidates will possess excellent writing, research, and organizational skills. Candidates should also have a successful track record working on teams. Capitol Hill experience is a plus. Tasks will include tracking press clips, monitoring social media, and assisting with writing projects.

Prior internship experience in press and government preferred but not required. Responsibilities include overseeing the archiving and management of Committee records, and the maintenance of relevant archiving policies and procedures. The Committee Archivist will survey records management practices, recommend and implement improvements, work with staff to maintain textual and electronic records in an appropriate manner, ascertain and ensure the completeness of legislative, oversight, and nominations documentation, prepare inventories of archival transfers, and serve as liaison with the Senate Archivist in transferring records to the Archives and in retrieving records from the Archives.

Experience on Capitol Hill or with the political process is highly desirable, as well as knowledge of the historic role of the Senate Judiciary Committee in executive and judicial nominations, executive branch oversight, and legislative issues. Interested candidates should submit a resume and cover letter to jobs feinstein. Senator Manchin seeks an enthusiastic, professional student or recent post-graduate to assist an aggressive and fast-paced press office.

Tasks include compiling daily press and broadcast clips, organizing, maintaining and updating media lists, drafting press releases, assisting with social media, conducting brief research projects as well as additional tasks to assist the press team. Preference will be given to candidates with West Virginia ties and those who can commit to a fulltime internship. To apply, please e-mail cover letter, resume with references and one writing sample to internship manchin.

Midwestern Democratic Senator seeks Policy Analyst to work on tax and economic issues. It also includes preparing the Senator for hearings, drafting legislation and constituent correspondence, providing vote recommendations and representing the Senator in meetings with constituents and outside stakeholders. Candidates should have a strong understanding of tax policy and the ability to communicate complex tax issues to a general audience. Previous experience working for a member of Congress is must.

Duties include tracking legislation, researching bills, attending committee hearings and briefings, leading tours of the U. Capitol, handling constituent phone calls, sorting mail and providing legislative support. College credit is available. There are a limited number of scholarships available for those with demonstrated financial need.

The ideal candidates are energetic, resourceful and able to effectively multitask in a fast- paced environment. Applications are reviewed and offers can be made on an ongoing basis. Conservative Senator seeks an experienced communicator to serve as press secretary. The press secretary will report directly to the communications director and assist in the day to day operations of the press shop.

These include, but are not limited to, drafting press releases, booking and prepping the member for television and radio interviews, managing social media platforms, responding to press inquiries, and placing op-eds. The ideal candidate will have previous Capitol Hill experience and have the ability to quickly develop intellectual proficiency on a wide array of legislative issues as needed. Please email a cover letter and resume to gopsenatejobs gmail. A Western Democrat is seeking a Legislative Assistant LA to manage the banking, housing, tax, budget, and economic development portfolio for a Banking Committee member.

Candidates should have Hill experience along with an extensive background working on banking and economic policy issues. Ideal candidates will have strong oral and written communication skills and an excellent track record working on teams. Candidates should also have experience breaking down complex financial services issues into relatable terms. Senator Edward J. Markey seeks a Constituent Services Representative for his Boston office. Responsibilities include managing a significant casework portfolio, liaising with federal agencies, conducting outreach, some advance functions, and assisting with various special projects.

Applicants must be organized, detail-oriented, and have a strong interest in public service. Ties to Massachusetts are required. The Boston office of Senator Edward J. Markey D-MA is currently hiring interns for the fall semester. Applicants should be self-motivated, have excellent interpersonal and communication skills, a strong writing ability, and an interest in public service. Ties to Massachusetts are strongly preferred. Senator Dan Sullivan is looking for exceptional Alaskan college students and recent college graduates to join his team in Washington, D.

Our internship is an excellent way to explore possible career options while gaining valuable life experience that can further your future professional pursuits. Students can expect to work 40 hours a week as a paid temporary employee. Duties will include legislative research, writing constituent correspondence, attending committee hearings and more. Food manufacturers that are producing the products are skilled in selling them under various private labels to mitigate competition from other private store labels.

The exception to this is in the wholesale business for the food service sector. Retail food stores traditionally struggle for profitability mostly because of fierce horizontal competition. Many stores go out of business as consumers seek the lowest prices for homogeneous products or unique shopping experiences and products in upscale stores. The bifurcation of retailers has been occurring since the s, with the big box stores on one side and unique food offerings like organic and total private labels on the other.

Retailers that try to supply middle-of-the-road grocery stores are disappearing.

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Profits on grocery store sales are traditionally stated as 2 percent, meaning they operate at very small margins FMI, Perhaps the primary indicator of social and economic success in any food system is the ability to provide a population with an abundant supply of affordable, safe, high-quality, and nutritious food. This review suggests that the U. Researchers have understood for decades that all of the decisions made regarding food, purchasing, and. These include the communities in which people live; the food available in those communities; the influences to which they are exposed, such as advertising and marketing; and their beliefs about the environment, farming, globalization, and many other factors.

The food system is dynamic and the changing eating habits and cultural and environmental dispositions among U. This shift will be necessary to assess in future decades. Compared to other social and economic variables, income arguably has the strongest marginal impact on dietary behavior: higher-income households spend more for food and eat higher-quality diets; lower-income households buy more generic brands and discounted foods Contento, and prepare more of their food at home.

However, those in the lowest quintile of income spend a much higher share of their total income on food nearly 35 percent in than do those in the highest quintile 7 percent BLS, a see Figure , despite the fact that over the past 50 years, the average share of income spent on food has fallen from approximately 18 percent to approximately 10 percent ERS, a. The foods purchased and consumed by lower- and higher-income households are different, as is the percentage of food dollars spent on food at home FAH compared to food away from home FAFH.

Actual expenditures on all food product categories, including fruits and vegetables Ludwig and Pollack, , increase at every income level and are 2. One measure of how the U. Historically, the Consumer Price Index 3 CPI for food at retail stores was below or the same as overall inflation, running at about 2 to 3 percent between and Volpe, Since , the CPI for food has been more volatile due in part to international market shortages, weather, and other factors. Between and , the CPI for food rose 20 percent compared to 14 percent overall.

This led to the percentage of disposable income spent on food rising from an average of 9. Reducing these costs can lower food prices and food price inflation. Most U. Since , USDA has monitored the extent and severity of food insecurity through an annual national representative survey Gundersen et al. In a survey documenting food security in the United States Coleman-Jensen et al. Another 5. About 10 percent of U. The prevalence of food insecurity was lower in the year than it is now.

It substantially increased in as the recession started and has been essentially unchanged since then. In , 1. Food insecurity is determined by multiple variables. One of the most important is income; 40 percent of households with incomes lower than the federal poverty level are food insecure, while only 7 percent of households with income above percent of the poverty level are food insecure Coleman-Jensen et al.

However, income is not the only factor in predicting food insecurity: households without liquid assets are much more likely to be food insecure, and income volatility is associated with food insecurity Gundersen et al. Not surprisingly, housing instability is also a factor Ma et al. Other characteristics that correlate with food insecure households are those headed by an African American, a Hispanic, a younger person, or a less educated person Gundersen et al. Further analysis of data on food insecurity by the Economic Research Service found that three national-level economic measures—changes in unemployment, inflation, and the price of food—accounted for 92 percent of the year-to-year variation in the national prevalence of food insecurity from to Nord et al.

Numerous studies have shown that food insecurity increases the risk of a range of health and psychosocial problems among children, adolescents, and adults Gundersen and Kreider, ; Huang et al. Children who are food insecure have increased risk of asthma, cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems; have lower math scores; and are twice as likely to repeat a grade and three times as likely to be suspended from school as children who are food secure Alaimo et al.

Teens who reported being food insecure were found to be twice as likely to suffer from depression and five times as likely to commit suicide as were food secure teens Alaimo et al. Food insecure adults have an increased risk of heart disease and depression or anxiety Seligman et al. Furthermore, diabetic individuals have more difficulties following a diabetic diet and need more medical attention if they are also food insecure Nelson et al.

Due to these individual-level consequences, low food security also raises societal costs of providing education e. It is argued that food insecurity is a market failure that occurs when private markets do not provide enough food even when the benefits of providing it outweigh the social costs Rocha, Food itself is a private good, but food security is a public good, so the government has stepped in to help alleviate some of the problem. Approximately 60 percent of food insecure households participate in one or more government nutrition or food programs Feeding America, b. In , more than 47 million individuals received SNAP benefits.

About 70 percent of participants are families with children and more than 25 percent are households with seniors or people with disabilities CBPP, In the same year, for the first time, working-age people made up the majority of households receiving benefits Yen, It should be noted that the multiplier effect of SNAP is quite substantial.

Even with their SNAP benefits, the typical food insecure households purchased significantly less food than did typical food secure households of the same size and composition in Coleman-Jensen et al. Some of the difference can be explained by three critical barriers that con-.

In addition, the assumptions used to calculate food stamp benefits do not account for changes in other expenditures, such as those for housing, that have increased considerably over past decades, resulting in less money available to purchase adequate diets. A corollary to food insecurity is limited food access, which has been defined as the inability to purchase nutritious, affordable foods within a prescribed distance from home.

There are several different food access issues: a lack of supermarkets in low-income areas; a lack of transportation to supermarkets or superstores; and an abundance of smaller stores, which charge higher prices and carry few healthy foods Ver Ploeg et al. The findings from a study of the problem by a large team of researchers and policy analysts from several USDA agencies suggest that the term food desert is not accurate or useful in many cases Ver Ploeg et al.

In fact, USDA analysis found that access to a supermarket or a large grocery store is a problem for only a small percentage of low-income households in low-income areas about 4 percent of the total U. Also, low-income households shop where food prices are lower when they can. More recent research has found that in many places around the United States, low-income urban neighborhoods have more grocery stores, supermarkets, and full-service restaurants, along with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores, than do affluent areas Lee, However, these findings do not mean that the quality of food in stores in low-income areas is as high as in more affluent areas, and low-income households, especially very low-income families, do not face many barriers in procuring and preparing nutritious meals Ver Ploeg et al.

Consumers are the end of the food chain, and their health and wellness is the primary reason food production is absolutely necessary in every. A scan of the literature on contemporary food systems offers many elements that consumers desire from the food system, including a low risk of illness from the consumption of unsafe food, a wide availability of a variety of food choices, low price, foods that meet taste preferences, foods that offer various types of convenience, the ability to act on desires for foods produced in environmentally sound ways that have not unduly harmed natural resources, accessibility to culturally desired food products and ingredients, and access to innovative culinary trends.

In the most recent survey, in response to a question about what factors have a significant or great impact on a decision to buy foods and beverages, the first choice is taste 90 percent choosing this. The second is price 73 percent , then healthfulness 71 percent , convenience 51 percent , and sustainability 38 percent IFIC, a. These factors are described below. Humans are born with a predisposition to like sweet and to reject sour or bitter flavors, and over time, they develop preferences for salt and fat Contento, However, these biologically inherent tastes are not determinative.

With repeated consumption a preference for a novel food tends to increase. Therefore if children or adults are frequently exposed to foods that are high in sugar, fat, and salt, they will become familiar and preferred over foods that are relatively unfamiliar Contento, These research findings explain in part the heightened concern about television advertising to children of foods of low nutritional quality that are high in fat, added sugars, and sodium. People tend to like calorie-dense foods, which would have been adaptive when such food was scarce but is maladaptive where food is readily available Contento, Retraining the U.

Nutrition educators have been engaged in related efforts for many decades, but with quite limited resources compared to those of the food industry Contento, Food prices change frequently for a number of reasons. Between and , CPIs were much lower compared to the CPI over time for carbonated drinks, nonalcoholic beverages, and whole milk, and they were quite a bit higher for all fruits and vegetables and even higher for fresh fruits and vegetables Wendt and Todd, A study by researchers at USDA, however, shows that the prices of many staple fruits and vegetables have not had disproportionate price increases Kuchler and Stewart, Complementing the data on price indexes is a review of multiple estimates of price elasticities calculated between and Andreyeva et al.

Price elasticity is defined as the percentage change in quantity purchased as a result of a 1 percent change in the price of a product. Over time, the highest price elasticities are for food away from home, soft drinks, juices, beef, and pork. The lowest price elasticities are for fats and oils, cheese, sweets and sugars, and eggs, suggesting that purchase of the latter foods are more resistant to price changes.

Older, higher-income consumers and men are less likely to be influenced by price than are younger, low-income consumers and women IFIC, Just and Payne argue that most consumers are not very responsive overall to changes in price and income, but that they tend to be more responsive to changes especially a lowering in the price of foods high in fat, salt, and sugar. Lowenstein reports that between and the relative price of food fell nearly 15 percent, and processed food prices declined the most.

He states that several economic reports assign most of the increase in obesity over that time to the increase in calorie intake that resulted from the change in prices Lowenstein, Healthfulness includes nutritional value as well as food safety from microbial contamination or elements such as pesticide residues and other toxicants. In the most recent IFIC survey IFIC, a , the importance of healthfulness as a factor affecting food and beverage purchases increased significantly over the prior 2 years.

Higher-income shoppers, on average, purchase slightly more healthful foods than do lower-income shoppers, but all subgroups fall far short of purchasing a food basket that meets USDA dietary guidelines Volpe and Okrent, Women and older consumers are more likely to use healthfulness as a key factor in food purchasing. However, few consumers understand health issues at more than a superficial level Just, , and they may choose many products that are not health enhancing.

Manufacturers and marketers study and analyze models of consumer behavior, including deliberate and slow purchases versus those that are emotional and heuristic Shiv and Fedorikhin, Manufacturers understand that consumers respond to a variety of factors, such as the price, the price of substitutes and complements, the number of calories, the size of a portion, the shape and color of containers, product placement, and others, and can make changes in their marketing approaches if they wish to do so Just, Beginning in the s, the growing presence of women in the workforce and other social and cultural changes created a demand for foods that would be easy to acquire and convenient and quick to prepare.

Since then, convenience foods have become a staple feature of the food landscape. Convenience foods—defined as those processed foods that need little preparation, are preprepared, and are preserved for long-term storage—are popular among consumers because meal preparation requires little time and effort, and some are less expensive than their home-prepared counterparts Kinsey, Consumers recognize that these foods are shelf stable and amenable to long-distance transportation and long-term storage in the home and other institutions Kinsey, In the latest IFIC survey, three-quarters of respondents believe that processing can help food stay fresh longer; 63 percent believe they benefit from modern food production and processing, with the top two benefits being improved food safety and prolonged freshness IFIC, a.

Convenience foods also are popular among food manufacturers because these products are very high earners. The majority of these foods are high in sugar, salt, saturated fat, or total fat, or they are of low nutrient density. Food companies are continually expanding their offerings of convenience foods through line extensions, new packaging, and some genuinely new products. The average number of new food and beverage products introduced to the market between and was 21, per year ERS, c.

This proliferation of processed and convenience foods means that food corporations have increasingly shaped what and how consumers eat Belasco and Scranton, Because the number of items in stores is so high, consumers must spend much more time in the store making decisions Kinsey, Furthermore, consumers make more. Meeting the desire for convenience has also led to the rise of fast food outlets and the ubiquitous presence of food for sale in all types of stores and public places.

In addition, busy lives mean that consumers are increasingly combining eating with other activities, such as working, driving, watching TV, and interacting with the Internet, e-mail, or phones Kinsey, , thus increasing the desire for foods that are convenient and easy to eat. These behaviors appear to have contributed to the obesity problem in the United States Harvard School of Public Health, One way to consider the growing importance of convenience in food choices is to examine the relative expenditures on food at home and food away from home.

Of the total dollars spent on food in the lowest-income households, 30 percent was spent on FAFH and 70 percent on FAH, while in the highest income quintile the expenditures were closer to 50 percent in each category BLS, a. Between and , the share of calorie intake from FAFH increased from 18 to 32 percent Lin and Guthrie, The highest percentage of calories from saturated fat occurred in fast foods compared to the percentage in restaurant foods, school food, and FAH Lin and Guthrie, Concurrent with the increase in eating at restaurants and fast food establishments, the percentage of time spent on food preparation, along with the daily number of calories consumed from food eaten at home, decreased in all socioeconomic groups from to Smith et al.

The largest decline occurred between and and has leveled off since, but many Americans do not know how to cook anymore. Other research indicates that changes in time spent on preparing food may differ by income, for one study found that more than 60 percent of low-income consumers prepare main meals from scratch an average of four times per week more often than do moderate-income families , and they use some forms of preprepared foods twice per week Share Our Strength, The percentage of consumers who claim to know something about sustainability has continued to rise and many say that sustainability is somewhat or very important to them IFIC, a.

The aspects of sustainability reported as most important are conserving the natural habitat, ensuring an affordable and sufficient global food supply, and reducing the amount of pesticides IFIC, a. Another national survey Cone Communications, has found that 77 percent of the U. Thirty-five percent of consumers report that they purchase foods and beverages advertised as local, 32 percent buy foods and beverages labeled as organic, and 20 percent purchase foods and beverages in recycled or recyclable packaging, despite the price premium that is often attached to these products IFIC, b.

In , 78 percent of U. Fruits and vegetables are approximately 35 percent of all organic food sales, and the preponderance is fresh produce OTA, Studies have found that consumers who have higher levels of education are more likely to buy organic products than are less educated consumers, but other factors e. For example, African Americans are somewhat less likely to purchase organic foods, but when they do they purchase much greater quantities than do white consumers Stevens-Garmon et al. Questions about the ability of organic agriculture to produce comparable food yields have persisted for many years.

However, a large analysis, including almost research comparisons between organic and nonorganic production around the world, shows that the yield indexes were similar between the two different production methods Badgley et al. However, a recent comprehensive meta-analysis shows that, overall, organic yields are typically lower than conventional yields, with the differences depending on the site and systems characteristics Seufert et al.

The debate is important because using organic methods versus nonorganic practices involves trade-offs in other domains that should be explored. For example, choosing organic methods might result in lower productivity, but also in better outcomes in the health and environmental domains; these trade-offs are important but challenging to measure e. A comparison of multiple environmental effects measured in Europe demonstrated significant differences between organic and conventional systems: organic systems. Conventional systems were lower in nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions, and land use.

The authors also report that most studies that compared biodiversity demonstrated lower impacts from organic farming Tuomisto et al. The use of synthetic pesticides in nonorganic systems—to control or kill potential disease-causing organisms—pose a number of concerns for environmental health, including water quality impairment by pesticides in 90 percent of water bodies in the United States, in 80 percent of the fish that have been studied, and in 33 percent of major aquifers U. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pesticides also are producing negative effects on endangered and threatened species and on pollinators EPA, Some consumers express concerns about the perceived loss of direct social and economic ties to local producers and business owners, an increasingly homogenized food retail environment, and lack of transparency in how food is produced and distributed.

Local food, which has no generally accepted definition, is a small but growing sector in the United States. Most sales are made in metropolitan areas, and in the Northeast and on the West Coast Tropp, About 75 percent of consumers consume locally produced food at least once per month, and almost 90 percent think local foods are very or somewhat important Tropp, Consumer concerns about sustainability have contributed to greater calls for corporate social responsibility among mainstream food supply chain firms.

Corporate social responsibility sustainability programs aimed to improve social and environmental performance have led to significant and largely unanticipated changes in the practices of many food processors and retailers. Decisions by retail firms to demand certification of the use of sustainable production and business practices from their suppliers has become one of the most significant drivers of change in the modern U.

As this chapter shows, any food system configuration will generate positive and negative social and economic effects, and the selection of any of them will invariably result in various trade-offs that need to be compared. Comparing alternative configurations of the U. For example, the efficiencies in the system that have reduced costs for the industry and food prices for consumers have had trade-offs, such as lost jobs and low food-worker wages. These complexities, then, have implications for the methodological approaches used to estimate effects, as it is challenging to tease apart multiple influences and determine the effects of combined exposures.

In this section, we highlight some representative examples of the distributions of costs and benefits that occur within the social and economic dimensions as well as interactions that occur between this and the health and environmental dimensions. The social and economic effects explored in this chapter differentially affect individuals across sociodemographic groups. To appreciate the influence of sociodemographic factors—such as income, race, ethnicity, gender, and citizenship status—when exploring the social and economic effects of the food system, one must acknowledge the statistical correlation of race and ethnicity with socioeconomic status SES, a construct measuring education, income, and occupation LaVeist, In addition, racial residential segregation among the U.

The social and economic effects and differences that result from education, occupational working conditions, income, or other factors are closely tied to where people live LaVeist et al. Thus, along with the confounding effects of social factors, the geographic and community- or neighborhood-level effects are important to consider when understanding and determining the social and economic effects of the food system.

As these effects are measured when applying the framework that the committee developed see Chapter 4 , it is important to at least acknowledge that these social and economic complexities exist and, when feasible, adequately account for them using appropriate statistical methods. In , the food system produced, on average, 3, calories per person per day in the United States Economist Intelligence Unit, and approximately 2, calories per person per day, globally.

As discussed above, this average availability is not distributed equally Coleman-Jensen et al. The accessibility to and affordability of foods globally also is highly diverse. Approximately million people are food insecure worldwide, but the level of insecurity varies substantially depending on the area of the world, with the majority of them living in developing areas FAO, In addition, countries differ in the progress made over the years FAO, The poverty level is well correlated with the prevalence of undernourishment FAO, , a factor that can create detrimental feedbacks.

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The Global Food Security Index GFSI , created by the Economist Intelligence Unit in , is a measure of food security across the three dimensions of affordability, availability, and use quality and safety that integrates 27 indicators. On the other side of the spectrum are developed countries, namely, the United States and most northern European countries. In each country, the mechanisms for differences in the indicators are rooted in many circumstances related to social, political, and economic drivers that lead to poverty and food insecurity.

However, against this background, food-related interventions in developed countries also can have important reverberations in other parts of the world, affecting the poor severely. For example, the global food crisis of stemmed in part from U. The increase in food prices disproportionally affected some countries like Cambodia, a net importer of rice, where most citizens are net buyers who are already close to the poverty line. The increase in rice prices in led many Cambodians to levels below the poverty line Maltsoglou et al. In addition, the FAO reports that food producers, and especially small holders, are more vulnerable to price increases than are consumers.

Another indicator of global food security is the safety and quality of food. Compared to poorer countries, improvements in diversity and safety of the food supply in the developed world have resulted in much improvement in the adequacy of diets. In developing countries, however,. A recent paper warned about the increased similarity in diets worldwide being a threat to health and food security, as many countries, especially those less developed, are forsaking traditional crops in favor of a more narrow diversity of crop species Khoury et al.

The impacts of structural changes in size and organization of firms in the food supply chain are not experienced equally in all places. In general, rural areas are disadvantaged and have a relatively difficult time adjusting to economic changes associated with industry integration, consolidation, and globalization. This is because their economies are less diversified, lack the agglomeration benefits of urban areas, and offer fewer options to individual employees or firm owners who are displaced by competitive forces.

Rural areas are more expensive to service, and it is rare for more than one major retail grocery chain to be able to survive in one area, leading to lower levels of competition, less diverse offerings, and higher prices for many food products. Different regions also have fared better or worse during recent periods of change. Areas with good soils, favorable climatic conditions, and well-developed agribusiness infrastructure have seen more rapid consolidation in farming and concentration of high-value production systems.

Those with better proximity to urban markets have been better able to capitalize on the growth of local and regional food marketing opportunities. Trends that benefit particular commodities will provide benefits for regions that specialize or have competitive advantages in the production of those commodities. For example, the rapid rise of the corn ethanol market in the s could result in significant gains for corn-producing areas but also drive up costs of production and reduced profitability in livestock production regions that had used corn as a major feed source.

There are many trade-offs between environmental outcomes and the level of profitability or efficiency across the food supply chain. In providing an abundant supply of inexpensive food, the U. Conversely, efforts to address environmental problems associated with agricultural production are likely to increase costs to consumers and reduce production efficiencies. Not all gains in environmental performance come at the expense of efficiency,. For example, using nutrient inputs more efficiently e. Because agriculture is the dominant land use in most regions of the United States, the quality of life by rural residents can be affected by changes in production practices and cropping patterns.

Traits of high-output, high-efficiency production systems e. One environmental issue that is affecting producers and consumers alike is the diminished quantity and quality of water. Changes in water associated with farm production and food manufacturing have direct impacts on the cost and quality of water available to small town and urban residents see also Chapter 3 on the interactions among social, economic, and health effects, and Chapter 7 , Annex 4 for a detailed description of the trade-offs among crop productivity and environmental and health effects with different nitrogen management approaches.

Health, income, and SES are interrelated in multiple ways. On average, higher-income individuals live longer and are healthier than are lower-income individuals Deaton and Paxson, This is in part because they spend more on safety e. Healthier individuals also may earn more because they lose fewer workdays to disability and illness and may have lower medical expenses, but this effect cannot explain the strength of the income—health relationship Smith, , nor can it explain the better health of children born to higher-income parents Case et al.

SES is related to health even after controlling for income Marmot, Some of the associations between health and income and SES may also be related to education, as research shows that better educated individuals have better paying and safer jobs, a lower risk of chronic disease, positive health behaviors, and longer lives than do those with less education RWJF, Determining the social and economic effects of the food system should involve the use of valid and reliable data measured at the necessary scale e. However, several current data needs and gaps challenge the ability to accurately measure these effects.

A more thorough discussion of the methods needed to comprehensively explore the effects of the food system is presented in Chapter 7. Here, we describe some of the key methodological issues that should be considered when measuring the social and economic effects of the food system. To conduct an assessment of the social and economic effects of alternative configurations of the food system and propose interventions see examples of interventions in Box , it is necessary to identify key metrics or indicators of social and economic effects.

The broad categories outlined in Box are well-documented examples of those metrics. A wide range of food and agricultural data—including prices, costs, inputs, production levels, incomes, food availability, and environmental effects—are compiled by USDA and made available to the public by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service.

The Agricultural Resource Management Survey tracks agricultural practices, including chemical and mechanical input use that affect agricultural productivity and environmental outcomes. Other federal agencies, including the BLS and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, collect data on occupational safety and health for workers across the food sector, although data are often at the industry level and not always by occupations.

Appendix B includes information on where to find some of these key databases, as well as metrics to measure these effects. However, many data gaps exist. Many of the current national datasets allow for aggregate estimates of economic and social outcomes, such as total number of workers, sector output, productivity, and profitability, especially for large-scale farms.

Similar estimates are not easily generated for small-scale farms and by geography, over time, and for certain sectors due to lack of data. In addition, although some of the existing national datasets present data by key sociodemographic factors, such as race, ethnicity, gender, and immigration status, these measures are often lacking at the regional. Thus, the ability to produce stratified estimates by scale along with key sociodemographic factors for social and economic effects is also limited. As a result, when these measures are of interest, analyses often have to extrapolate findings from one scale to another to generate estimates of the effects.

Furthermore, sometimes data are not even available to allow for extrapolation. For example, valid and reliable measures of variables that address some important social effects, such as a sense of well-being and career mobility opportunities, are lacking. These metrics are even more difficult to identify for immigrant populations, who are heavily represented among the farm worker population.

Levels of income, wealth,. These measures are almost always self-reported, and several datasets display a high degree of missing data for these variables because respondents consider the data too private or sensitive or they may not know their income Davern et al. When data are missing, it is important to determine whether the data are missing at random and whether imputation techniques could be validly applied. These gaps in existing data support a need to collect primary data using both quantitative methods e. Although primary data collection may be labor and resource intensive, collecting them is extremely valuable to fill data gaps as well as to add context to existing discrete secondary data.

Many resources describe qualitative data collection and analysis, and investigators should review them before employing this methodology Creswell, ; Miles and Huberman, ; Richards and Morse, When it comes to consumers, information on freedom of choice to pursue taste and lifestyle preferences also are lacking from some datasets.

However, methods that can be used to measure important economic principles have been published in numerous economics journals Capps and Schmitz, ; Huang and Haidacher, ; Nelson, ; Phillips and Price, ; Reed and Levedahl, ; Reed et al. The economic theory of consumer behavior says that the quantity of a good e. Price and income are the key variables in a consumer demand model typically analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression techniques—standard statistical tools.

The quantity demanded is modeled as a function of price and income, along with other sociodemographic e. Including these measures can help answer an important question when measuring economic effects: What is the percentage change in quantity that accompanies a 1 percent change in price or income? Demand analysis, a concept of market demand rather than individual behavior, is most useful in examining market trends and behavior. Time series datasets are typically used for this analysis. Appendix B provides a more detailed list of potential data, metrics, and methodologies.

Although price and income are useful variables, they do not entirely explain consumer food choices. These techniques provide insight into the degree of correlation that exists among variables, such as specific nutrient consumption and age, gender, or location. Because these models are not grounded in economic theory, they are not technically demand analysis, but they have been widely used to help understand how consumers choose food and how those choices affect their health and well-being.

Data used for these models are typically cross-sectional measures on individual consumers or households and are usually collected by surveys. These types of data have several caveats, including recall bias that results in understatements of the amount of food eaten. This line of analysis, pioneered by Gary Becker, also has been used to study food consumption, as the amount of time required to obtain food is relevant to household food choices. The data used to analyze these models are almost always survey data on individual or household choice and behavior. More recently, the theories of behavioral economics Just and Wansink, ; Kahneman and Tversky, ; List, ; Riedl, ; Smith, ; Umberger and Feuz, ; Wansink, have informed the understanding of consumer choices of food.

Prospect theory, which includes studies of how people manage risk and uncertainty, helps to inform this behavior. One of the issues in analyzing food demand and food choices is a lack of data needed to answer many current questions. For example, to determine the correlates of obesity, detailed data about individual food consumption, food prices, and household characteristics as well as health habits and diseases is desirable.

Rarely do all of these data on individuals occur in one dataset. A lack of secondary data is partly responsible for the growth of experimental economics, where researchers collect primary data through techniques such as auction games. Data for capturing effects of alternative food systems also are lacking. As research in this area has been limited, metrics related to the social and economic effects as they pertain to consumption patterns, workers, and production also are lacking.

These data gaps may hamper the ability to. The development and improvement of models to understand dynamics of farm and food markets and the behavior of key actors in the food supply chain are important in supporting efforts to assess the social and economic effects of changes in the food system. Food prices affect food access and choices, so they are hugely important to the food system. Prices change in response to supply and demand, especially in response to changes in policies, new technologies, and food industry structure. Market models simulate how supply and demand generate feedback for prices and quantities marketed.

Some of these models have been adapted to predict not only price and food quantity effects but also likely greenhouse gas emissions due to land-use change. The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute maintains a proprietary econometric partial equilibrium simulation model that is used to generate detailed price and market forecasts based on current policy and market conditions Meyers et al.

Randomized controlled trials RCTs are limited in research on the social and economic effects of the food system. Nearly all social science research uses observational study designs, although in some instances, cluster randomized trials are used to explore differences by settings e. Because observational and even quasi-experimental studies are more the norm, social science scholars have posed questions about finding reliable evidence on a program or intervention, and about what the standard of evidence should be Boruch and Rui, ; Flay et al.

Over the past 2 years, a number of organizations have been created to develop an evidence grading scheme across various social science disciplines, including the Society for Prevention Research Committee on Standards and the What Works Clearinghouse of the U.

Department of Education Boruch and Rui, Boruch and Rui, The Campbell Collaboration focuses on reviews from the social sciences. Unlike the Cochrane Collaboration, which tends to include RCTs, the Campbell Collaboration importantly admits quasi-experimental studies in its evidence standards. This presents an opportunity for additional reviews of the social science literature on relevant areas of the food system.

Many valuable and widely used national datasets are being eliminated or modified, or are at risk for being eliminated, because of funding limitations. Although a full description of these databases and the extent of the cuts is beyond the scope of this section, several databases that include important metrics for assessing agriculture and food systems are being reduced in length, changing methodology for sampling, or increasing time between data collection, all as part of cost-saving measures.

Several reasons support maintaining these databases, including the tremendous benefits of surveillance. Surveillance data allow for monitoring of trends over time, determining changes in risks and outcomes to inform priority setting, developing targeted policies and programs, and evaluating interventions. Efforts to enhance funding to sustain these important national data systems should emphasize the value and necessity of data for evidence-informed decision making. As a substantial contributor to the larger bioeconomy, the U.

This chapter briefly describes a selected number of social and economic effects that can be partly attributed to the food system and that are mediated by policy contexts and responses. The effects were categorized into 1 levels of income, wealth, and distributional equity; 2 quality of life; and 3 worker health and well-being. To aid in the design of interventions that minimize negative consequences, approaches that consider these important effects, along with their distributions and interactions, are needed.

For example: What are the impacts of a specific policy on overall economic wealth and income and the distribution of wealth and income? What are the impacts on worker well-being? What are the impacts on rural communities? Which subsectors of the food system will gain or lose? How will working conditions and employment opportunities for workers in different. How will the cost and availability of food for consumers be affected? The analytical framework proposed in Chapter 7 is designed to ensure that the broad implications of these questions can be examined.

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