The Biogeography of the Oceans: 32 (Advances in Marine Biology)
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Place-based ocean management: emerging U. Ho, L. Developing offshore wind farm siting criteria by using an international Delphi method. Dynamic spatial zoning to manage southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii capture in a multi-species longline fishery. Hoel, A. Integrated ocean management as a strategy to meet rapid climate change: the Norwegian case. AMBIO, 41 1 , pp.
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The power of the offshore super- grid in advancing marine regionalization. Trans-boundary dimensions of marine spatial planning: Fostering inter-jurisdictional relations and governance. Jennings, S; Lee, J. Defining fishing grounds with vessel monitoring system data. Assessing fishery footprints and the trade-offs between landings value, habitat sensitivity, and fishing impacts to inform marine spatial planning and an ecosystem approach.
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Multivariate dissemination of species relationships for use in marine spatial planning. Seabed habitat mapping in the Kent Group of islands and its role in marine protected area planning. Juda, L. The prospects for comprehensive ocean management. Kafas, A. ScotMap: Participatory mapping of inshore fishing activity to inform marine spatial planning in Scotland. Kannen, A. Challenges for marine spatial planning in the context of multiple sea uses, policy arenas and actors based on experiences from the German North Sea. Kannen, A; Burkhard, B.
Kaplan, DM. Fish life histories and marine protected areas: an odd couple?. Applying complementary species vulnerability assessments to improve conservation strategies in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Kappel, C. In the zone: comprehensive ocean protection. Katsanevakis, S.
Ecosystem-based marine spatial management: Review of concepts, policies, tools, and critical issues. Kearney, B; Farebrother, G.
Kelleher, G. AMBIO, 11 5 , pp. Kelly, C. Reflective practice for marine planning: A case study of marine nature-based tourism partnerships. Review and evaluation of marine spatial planning in the Shetland Islands. Investigating options on how to address cumulative impacts in marine spatial planning. Measuring the performance of spatial management in marine protected areas. Kenchington, R. Achieving marine conservation through biosphere reserve planning and management. Kenchington, R; Day, J. An integrated approach for assessing the relative significance of human pressures and environmental forcing on the status of Large Marine Ecosystems.
Keppel, G. The importance of expert knowledge in conservation planning — Comment to an article by CJ Klein et al.. Planning at the edge: Integrating across the land-sea divide. Khan, A; Amelie, V. Assessing climate change readiness in Seychelles: implications for ecosystem-based adaptation mainstreaming and marine spatial planning. Kidd, S. Kidd, S; Ellis, G. From the Land to Sea and Back Again?
Kidd, S; McGowan, L. Constructing a ladder of transnational partnership working in support of marine spatial planning: thoughts from the Irish Sea. Kidd, S; Shaw, D. The social and political realities of marine spatial planning: some land-based reflections. Kirkman, Hugh. Choosing boundaries to marine protected areas and zoning the MPAs for restricted use and management.
Kittinger, J. A practical approach for putting people in ecosystem-based ocean planning. Navigating coastal values: Participatory mapping of ecosystem services for spatial planning. Integrated Marine and coastal management: a strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological resources in the Socotra Archipelago, Yemen. Spatial marine zoning for fisheries and conservation. Effectiveness of marine reserve networks in representing biodiversity and minimizing impact to fishermen: a comparison of two approaches used in California.
Tradeoffs in marine reserve design: habitat condition, representation, and socioeconomic costs. Knol, M. Mapping ocean governance: from ecological values to policy instrumentation. Scientific advice in integrated ocean management: the process towards the Barents Sea plan. Kocur-Bera, K; Dudzinska, M. Information and database range used for maritime spatial planning and for integrated management of the coastal zone — case study in Poland, Baltic Sea. Koehler, L. Stakeholder involvement in marine spatial planning.
Progress and promise in spatial human dimensions research for ecosystem-based ocean planning. Koivurova, T. Coastal Management, 40 2 , pp. Dynamic mapping of nature values to support prioritization of coastal oil combating. Kolzow, D. Coastal Zone Management in Croatia. Krause, G. Governance and offshore aquaculture in multi-resource use settings. Kukkala, AS; Moilanen, A. Core concepts of spatial prioritisation in systematic conservation planning. Kusumawati, Ika; Huang, Hsiang-Wen. Kyriazi, Z.
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A cooperative game-theoretic framework for negotiating marine spatial allocation agreements among heterogeneous players. LaBrecque, E. Laffoley, D. The ecosystem approach. Coherent actions for marine and coastal environments. A report to the UK Government. English Nature: Peterborough, England. A comparison of top-down and bottom-up approaches to benthic habitat mapping to inform offshore wind energy development. Connecting MPAs: eight challenges for science and management.
Integrating conservation, restoration and land-use planning in islands-An illustrative case study in Reunion Island Western Indian Ocean. Identifying and mapping biodiversity processes for conservation planning in islands: A case study in Reunion Island Western Indian Ocean. Insights into the Ocean Health Index for marine renewable energy. From hotspots to site protection: Identifying Marine Protected Areas for seabirds around the globe. Lathrop, R. The role of Mid-Atlantic ocean data portal in supporting ocean planning. Laurila-Pant, M. How to value biodiversity in environmental management?
Le Cornu, E. Lecours, V. On the use of maps and models in conservation and resource management Warning: Results may vary. Ledee, Elodie J. Responses and adaptation strategies of commercial and charter fishers to zoning changes in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Leslie, H.
Confronting the challenges of implementing marine ecosystem-based management. Learning from ecosystem-based management in practice. Using siting algorithms in the design of marine reserve networks. Lester, S. Science in support of ecosystem-based management for the US West Coast and beyond. Biological responses in marine no-take reserves versus partially protected areas. Exploring stakeholder perceptions of marine management in Bermuda.
Evaluating tradeoffs among ecosystem services to inform marine spatial planning. Biodiversity data requirements for systematic conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea. Incorporating socio-economic and political drivers of international collaboration into marine conservation planning. Levin, P. Integrated Ecosystem Assessments: developing the scientific basis for ecosystem-based management of the ocean. Levin, S. Resilience, robustness, and marine ecosystem-based management.
Participatory GIS to inform coral reef ecosystem management: Mapping human coastal and ocean uses in Hawaii. Marine resource management: Culture, livelihoods, and governance. Lewison, R. Dynamic Ocean Management: identifying the critical ingredients of dynamic approaches to ocean resource management. Li, H. The impacts and implications of the legal framework for sea use planning and management in China.
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Prospects for satellite imagery of insular features and surrounding marine habitats in the South China Sea. Mackelworth, P. Peace parks and trans-boundary initiatives: implications for marine conservation and spatial planning.
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Integrating connectivity and climate change into marine conservation planning. Mahon, Robin; Mascia, Michael B.. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. Volume 54, Volume 54, pp. Systematic conservation planning in the Mediterranean: a flexible tool for the identification of no-take marine protected areas.
Integrated planning for land-sea ecosystem connectivity to protect coral reefs. Spatio-temporal marine conservation planning to support high-latitude coral range expansion under climate change. Makino, Azusa; Klein, Carissa J. Malcolm, H. Selecting zones in a marine park: Early systematic planning improves cost-efficiency; combining habitat and biotic data improves effectiveness. Mangi, Stephen C.
Perceptions of stakeholders towards objectives and zoning of marine-protected areas in southern Europe. Martin, C. An assessment of the effectiveness of in-situ signage in multiple-use marine protected areas in providing information to different recreational users. A global map to aid the identification and screening of critical habitat for marine industries. The Channel habitat atlas for marine resource management CHARM : an aid for planning and decision-making in an area under strong anthropogenic pressure. Identification of conservation gaps and redesign of island marine protected areas.
Martins, C. Identifying priority areas for humpback whale conservation at Eastern Brazilian Coast. Mascia, MB. Governance of marine protected areas in the Wider Caribbean: Preliminary results of an international mail survey. Mascia, Michael B. Anne; Naidoo, Robin. Matuszeski, W. Managing the Federal Coastal Program: the planning years. Modelling the spatial distribution of plaice Pleuronectes platessa , sole Solea solea and thornback ray Raja clavata in UK waters for marine management and planning. Dynamic ocean management: Defining and conceptualizing real-time management of the ocean.
Integrated, ecosystem-based Marine Spatial Planning: Design and results of a game-based, quasi-experiment. Large-scale conservation planning in a multinational marine environment: cost matters. Collaboration among countries in marine conservation can achieve substantial efficiencies. Ecosystem-based management for the oceans.
Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: A globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves. McKenna, J. Understanding the use of ecosystem service knowledge in decision making: lessons from international experiences of spatial planning. The development and testing of a multiple-use zoning scheme for Scottish waters. Mcwhinnie, Lauren; Briers, Robert A. How good is good? An integrated simulation modeling and operations research approach to spatial management decision making.
Designing marine reserves for fishery management. Meiner, A. Merrie, A. An ocean of surprises: trends in human use, unexpected dynamics and governance challenges in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Merrie, A; Olsson, P. An innovation and agency perspective on the emergence and spread of Marine Spatial Planning.
MarineMap: A web-based platform for collaborative marine protected area planning. Evaluating conservation and fisheries management strategies by linking spatial prioritization software and ecosystem and fisheries modelling tools. Michael J. Geospatial analysis of management areas implemented for protection of the North Atlantic right whale along the northern Atlantic coast of the United States.
Impact assessment of a fisheries closure with effort and landings spatial analyses: A case study in the Western Baltic Sea. Linking regional planning and local action: Towards using social network analysis in systematic conservation planning. A mismatch of scales: challenges in planning for implementation of marine protected areas in the Coral Triangle. Real-world progress in overcoming the challenges of adaptive spatial planning in marine protected areas.
Moore, S. Identifying conflict potential in a coastal and marine environment using participatory mapping. Morgan, AD. Perspectives on effects-based management of New Zealand exclusive economic zone resources. Morgan, R. Morrison K. Toward more integrated ocean governance in Massachusetts: A progress report. Spatial patterns of benthic megahabitats and conservation planning in the Abrolhos Bank. Mu, R. Ocean-related zoning and planning in China: A review. Munro, J. Charting the coast: spatial planning for tourism using public participation GIS.
Observational methods used in marine spatial monitoring of fishes and associated habitats: a review. Murray, C. Myers, Monique R. Differences in benthic cover inside and outside marine protected areas on the Great Barrier Reef: influence of protection or disturbance history?. Nahuelhual, L. Mapping ecosystem services for marine spatial planning: Recreation opportunities in Sub-Antarctic Chile.
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Noble, Mae M. Nobre, A. Integration of ecosystem-based tools to support coastal zone management. Norse, EA Ending the range wars on the Last Frontier: zoning the sea. Norse, EA. Ecosystem-based spatial planning and management of marine fisheries: why and how? Nursey-Bay, M. Indicators for ecosystem-based management on the Scotian Shelf: bridging the gap between theory and practice.
The existing law and policy framework for ocean energy development in Ireland. Marine spatial planning and marine renewable energy. Assessment of recreation activity and its application to integrated management and spatial planning for Cork Harbour, Ireland. Ogden, JC. Olsen, E. The Norwegian ecosystem-based management plan for the Barents Sea. Integration at the round table: Marine Spatial Planning in multi-stakeholder settings.
Place-based management at different spatial scales. Olsen, S. A common framework for learning from ICM experience. Governance baselines as a basis for adaptive marine spatial planning. Olson, J. Seeding nature, ceding culture: Redefining the boundaries of the marine commons through spatial management and GIS. Comparison of five modelling techniques to predict the spatial distribution and abundance of seabirds.
Otremba, Z; Andrulewicz, E. Physical fields during construction and operation of wind farms by example of Polish maritime areas. Polish Maritime Research, 21 4 , pp. Ottersen, G. The Norwegian plan for integrated ecosystem-based management of the marine environment in the Norwegian Sea. Ou, L.
Offshore wind zoning in China: Method and experience. Parker, Scott R. Spatial patterns of fishing effort off San Diego: implications for zonal management and ecosystem function. Understanding relationships between conflicting human uses and coastal ecosystems status: A geospatial modeling approach.
A decision support system to assist the sustainable management of navigation activities in the St. Lawrence River Estuary, Canada. Marine biological valuation mapping of the Basque continental shelf Bay of Biscay , within the context of marine spatial planning. Total fishing pressure produced by artisanal fisheries, from a Marine Spatial Planning perspective: A case study from the Basque Country Bay of Biscay. Pater, C; Oxley, I. Developing marine historic environment management policy: The English Heritage experience. Peel, D. The social reconstruction of the marine environment: toward marine spatial planning?
Pekkarinen, A; Repka, S. Maritime Transport in the Gulf of Bothnia AMBIO, 43 6 , pp. Pennino, M.
A spatially explicit risk assessment approach: Cetaceans and marine traffic in the Pelagos Sanctuary Mediterranean Sea. Importance of coastal Marine Protected Areas for the conservation of pelagic seabirds: The case of Vulnerable yelkouan shearwaters in the Mediterranean Sea. Getting it right for the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis : A last opportunity for effective marine spatial planning?.
Phillips, JA. Marine conservation initiatives in Australia: Their relevance to the conservation of macroalgae. Picone, F. Integrating natural capital assessment and marine spatial planning: A case study in the Mediterranean sea. Decision support tools in marine spatial planning: Present applications, gaps and future perspectives. Pittman, Simon J. Plasman, IC. Implementing marine spatial planning: A policy perspective.
Benthic zone (habitat)
Pomeroy, R; Douvere, F. The engagement of stakeholders in the marine spatial planning process. Portman, M. From land to sea: The role of land trusts in marine protection. Marine spatial planning: achieving and evaluating integration. Regulatory capture by default: offshore exploratory drilling for oil and gas. Marine spatial planning in the Middle East: crossing the policy-planning divide. He who hesitates is lost: Why conservation in the Mediterranean Sea is necessary and possible now.
Powers, A. Prestrelo, L. Identifying multi-use conflicts prior to marine spatial planning: a case study of a multi-legislative estuary in Brazil. Spatial planning of offshore wind farms: A windfall to marine environmental protection?. The emerging policy landscape for marine spatial planning in Europe. Queffelec, B,. In: Chircop, A. Ocean Yearbook Martinus Nijhoff Publishers: Leiden. Rahman, M. Blue economy and maritime cooperation in the bay of bengal: Role of Bangladesh.
Integrating scientific guidance into marine spatial planning. Marine protected areas and the value of spatially optimized fishery management. Ray, G. Coastal and marine spatial planning: a policy waiting to happen. Read, Andrew D. Qualitative risk assessment of multiple-use marine park effectiveness — A case study from NSW, Australia. Optimizing voluntary compliance in marine protected areas: A comparison of recreational fisher and enforcement officer perspectives using multi-criteria analysis.
Is there a win-win scenario for marine nature conservation? A case study of Lyme Bay, England. Securing the benefits: Linking ecology with marine planning policy to examine the potential of a network of Marine Protected Areas to support human wellbeing. The value of marine biodiversity to the leisure and recreation industry and its application to marine spatial planning. Reis, J. Relevance of systems approaches for implementing integrated coastal zone management principles in Europe.
Benthos distribution modelling and its relevance for marine ecosystem management. High-resolution habitat suitability modelling can improve conservation of vulnerable marine ecosystems in the deep sea. Ricketts, PJ; Hildebrand, L. Riegl, B; Riegl, A. Studies on coral community structure and damage as a basis for zoning marine reserves. Ritchie, H. Advancing integrated marine spatial planning in Northern Ireland. Ritchie, H; Ellis, G. Ritchie, Heather. Ocean zoning: making marine management more effective.
Roberts, J. Habitat-based cetacean density models for the U. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Robinson, C; Mercer, D. Reconciliation in troubled waters? Australian oceans policy and offshore native title rights. Bridging the gap between legal and institutional developments within regional seas frameworks. Regional oceans governance mechanisms: a review. Delivering the Aichi target challenges and opportunities for marine areas beyond national jurisdiction.
Rodriguez, N. A comparative analysis of holistic marine management regimes and ecosystem approach in marine spatial planning in developed countries. Roman, George S. Rosenberg, A. Rosenthal, A, Verutesa, G. Process matters: a framework for conducting decision-relevant assessments of ecosystem services. Marine ecosystem-based management in practice: scientific, and governance challenges.
Notes from the field: lessons learned from using ecosystem service approaches to inform real-world decisions. Mapping stakeholder values for coastal zone management. Spatially explicit economic assessment of cultural ecosystem services: Non-extractive recreational uses of the coastal environment related to marine biodiversity. A multidisciplinary approach in the design of marine protected areas: Integration of science and stakeholder based methods.
Balancing extractive and non-extractive uses in marine conservation plans. Runge, C. Incorporating dynamic distributions into spatial prioritization. From Mare Liberum to Mare Reservarum. Transforming management of tropical coastal seas to cope with challenges of the 21st century. Assessment of goods and services, vulnerability, and conservation status of European seabed biotopes: a stepping stone towards ecosystem-based marine spatial management.
Salomon, Anne K. Modeling the trophic effects of marine protected area zoning policies: A case study. Salomon, M; Dross, M. Challenges in cross-sectoral marine protection in Europe. Changing vessel routes could significantly reduce the cost of future offshore wind projects. Sanchirico, James N. Comprehensive planning, dominant-use zones, and user rights: a new era in ocean governance.
Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas.
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How sustainable is sustainable marine spatial planning? Part II — The Portuguese experience. Part I-Linking the concepts. Marine spatial planning and oil spill risk analysis: Finding common grounds. Santos, CZ; Schiavetti, A. Scales, Kylie L. On the Front Line: frontal zones as priority at-sea conservation areas for mobile marine vertebrates.
The new mode of marine planning in the UK: Aspirations and challenges. Schachtner, E. Schaefer, N; Barale, V. Schill, S. Assessing hotspots within hotspots to conserve biodiversity and support fisheries management. Marine conservation of multispecies and multi-use areas with various conservation objectives and targets. When conservation precedes development: a case study of the opening up of the Socotra archipelago, Yemen.
ORYX, 45 3 , pp. Schultz-Zehden, A. Handbook for Integrated Maritime Spatial Planning. PlanCoast Project s. Pro : Berlin. Findings: experiences and lessons from BaltSeaPlan. Effects of ship traffic on seabirds in offshore waters: implications for marine conservation and spatial planning. Managing Marine Protected Areas in Indonesia. Shelmerdine, RL. Teasing out the detail: How our understanding of marine AIS data can better inform industries, developments, and planning.
Implications of defining fisheries closed areas based on predicted habitats in Shetland: A proactive and precautionary approach. Shiau, TA. Dive operator use patterns in the designated no-take zones of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Regional marine spatial planning: the data collection and mapping process.
Shucksmith, RJ; Kelly, C. Data collection and mapping: principles, processes and application in marine spatial planning. Shifting from marine reserves to maritime zoning for conservation of Pacific bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus. Linking top-down and bottom-up processes through the new U. National Ocean Policy. Silvas, D. A new vision for California ocean governance: comprehensive ecosystem-based ocean zoning.
Sissenwine, Michael P. Governance for responsible fisheries: An ecosystem approach.. Responsible fisheries in the marine ecosystem, , pp. An analysis of visitor movement patterns using travel networks in a large marine park, north-western Australia. Smallwood, Claire B. Spatial distribution and zoning compliance of recreational fishing in Ningaloo Marine Park, north-western Australia. Smith, G. Creating the spaces, filling them up: marine spatial planning in the Pentland Firth and Orkney waters.
Marine spatial planning in Scotland. Levelling the playing field? Smith, G; Brennan, RE. Losing our way with mapping: Thinking critically about marine spatial planning in Scotland. Smith, H. The industrialization of the world ocean. The spatial development basis of marine spatial planning in the United Kingdom. The integration of land and marine spatial planning. Smyth, C. Australian Conservation Foundation: Victoria. Smythe, T. Marine spatial planning as a tool for regional ocean governance? An analysis of the New England ocean planning network.
Marine ecoregions of the world: A bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas.
Spergel, B. Spiridonov, V. Importance of oceanographical background for a conservation priority areas network planned using MARXAN decision support tool in the Russian Arctic seas. The missing layer: Geo-technologies, communities, and implications for marine spatial planning. Stamoulis, K. Data requirements and tools to operationalize marine spatial planning in the United States.
Stanford, J. A protocol for ecosystem management. Are Speed Restriction Zones an effective management tool for minimising impacts of boats on dolphins in an Australian marine park?. Steffe, Aldo S.. Dependence of effective Marine Park zoning on survey design, data quality, and community acceptance: Response to Lynch. Towards a spatially explicit risk assessment for marine management: Assessing the vulnerability of fish to aggregate extraction.
Aquaculture site-selection and marine spatial planning: The roles of GIS-based tools and models. Monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas: A generic framework for implementation of ecosystem based marine management and its application. Assessing uncertainty associated with the monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas.
Quantitative environmental risk assessments in the context of marine spatial management: current approaches and some perspectives. Practical tools to support marine spatial planning: A review and some prototype tools. Quantifying cumulative impacts of human pressures on the marine environment: a geospatial modelling framework. Spatio-temporal patterns of fishing pressure on UK marine landscapes, and their implications for spatial planning and management.
Projected 21st-century changes to Arctic marine access. Climatic Change, , pp. Evaluating marine protected areas for managing marine resource conflict in Hawaii. Efficiency, costs and trade-offs in marine reserve system design. Stokes, David L. Conservation of migratory Magellanic penguins requires marine zoning.
Strain, L. Combining geographic information systems and ethnography to better understand and plan ocean space use. Perceptions and attitudes regarding marine reserves: a comparison of stakeholder groups in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Sutrisno, D. The development of spatial decision support system tool for marine spatial planning. Sutton, S. Sutton, Stephen G. Szuster, BW; Albasri, H. Taljaard, S; van Niekerk, L. How supportive are existing national legal regimes for multi-use marine spatial planning? The South African case. Tallis H.
Mapping and valuing ecosystem services as an approach for conservation and natural resource management. Tallis, H. The many faces of ecosystem-based management: making the process work today in real places. Tammi, I; Kalliola, R. Taussik, J. The opportunities of spatial planning for integrated coastal management.
Teh, Lydia C. Combining human preference and biodiversity priorities for marine protected area site selection in Sabah, Malaysia. A tool for site prioritisation of marine protected areas under data poor conditions. Plos One, 10 1. One size does not fit all: The emerging frontier in large-scale marine conservation. Hatchlings often eat sponges, jellyfishes, sargassum weed, small gastropods and crustaceans.
Juveniles, sub-adults and adults feed upon conch, clams, horseshoe crab as well as other crustaceans. They have powerful jaws that enable them to easily crush the hard shells of their prey. During migration through the open sea, loggerheads eat jellyfishes, pteropods, floating mollusks, floating egg clusters, squids and flying fishes. Although sea turtles move swiftly in the ocean, they are slow and defenseless on land.
Male sea turtles almost never leave the water. Female sea turtles leave the ocean only to lay eggs and, for most species, nest only at night. A female may nest every two to three years. Nesting can take between one and three hours. After a female turtle drags herself up the beach, she hollows out a pit with her back legs and deposits from fifty to two hundred eggs the size of golf balls. When the last egg is laid, the turtle covers the eggs with sand, tamps down the sand with her plastron, and flings more sand about with her flippers to erase any signs of the nest.
After about two months, the hatchling turtles emerge at night. The light reflected off the water from the sky guides them to the sea. These days, car headlights, street lamps, or lights on buildings near the beach cause some hatchlings to travel in the wrong direction. Waiting herons make fast meals of other hatchlings. Any babies still on the beach in the morning are easily picked off by predators or die in the hot sun. It is thought that when the surviving hatchlings reach maturity, they return to the beach where they hatched to lay their eggs. Loggerhead sea turtles reach sexual maturity when adults and their shells are longer than 90 cm in length thought to occur when they are from years of age.
In the United States, the southeastern region from North Carolina to Florida hosts the majority of the nesting. In Florida, Brevard County beaches receive the most nesting females per year than generally any other county in Florida. Nesting also occurs in some areas of the northeastern coasts of Mexico and minor beaches in the Caribbean. Nesting occurs during late spring and summer. Females renest approximately every two weeks during the nesting season laying between two and fives times a season with an average clutch size of eggs.
Egg diameter is from Incubation period varies, but 49 days at the least and 69 days at the most dependent upon the location of nesting. The male sex is determined at cooler temperatures. Nests are often lost to predators such as raccoons, dogs, ghost crabs, sea birds and ants as well as to shoreline erosion and human predation. Hatchlings are preyed upon by mammals, sea birds, crabs and carnivorous fishes. Predation continues to be high until the turtles are big enough to avoid being swallowed by large carnivorous fishes such as groupers, snappers and jacks.
Sharks are a formidable predator throughout the life cycle of sea turtles, although larger turtles can often avoid a shark attack by presenting the flat side of the plastron or carapace to prevent biting. Life Span: At least 30 years and up to 50 years or more. Population Numbers: Unknown. The flesh has been found to contain chelonitoxin which may cause a number of symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, burning sensation of lips, tongue and mouth, chest tightness, difficulty swallowing, hypersalivation, skin rash, coma and death. See the following for more information:.
Chelonitoxism: new case reports in French Polynesia and review of the literature Turtle meat kills six in Micronesia. Most loggerhead deaths occur due to drowning in shrimp nets, as well as due to longline fishing practices. Other reasons for being federally listed are due to predation of eggs in countries who utilize them as a primary means for food as well as sell them on the black market. Loggerheads are a big part of the diet of some rural communities, such as in the Antillean and Caribbean areas.
Much money is paid for their meat and eggs, which are used to make turtle burgers and turtle soup and the eggs are even used to make cakes. In Cuba, the eggs are dried in the oviduct and sold like sausage.